Windows Vista / 7 檔案複製、移動、同步指令:robocopy

Posted by – February 27, 2011

最近在整理外接硬碟的檔案,想把整顆 500GB 硬碟的資料複製到另一顆新硬碟,想起以前看過 Windows 7 有個內建指令可以加速這個工作:robocopy

這指令名字很好記,跟【機器戰警】RoboCop 只差了一個字 XD。實際上這個指令從 Windows Vista 就開始內建了,其他 Windows 作業系統則要另外安裝微軟提供的套件才有。

 

先進入 "命令提示列" (command prompt)。為什麼台灣微軟要翻個這麼奇怪的名字?

$ 開始 → 執行 → cmd

輸入以下指令會顯示使用說明

robocopy /?

這個指令的格式是這樣的

       Usage :: ROBOCOPY source destination [file [file]...] [options]

      source :: Source Directory (drive:\path or \\server\share\path).
 destination :: Destination Dir  (drive:\path or \\server\share\path).
        file :: File(s) to copy  (names/wildcards: default is "*.*").

各種參數的說明如下 (取自微軟官方說明文件):

::
:: Copy options :
::
                 /S :: copy Subdirectories, but not empty ones.
                 /E :: copy subdirectories, including Empty ones.
             /LEV:n :: only copy the top n LEVels of the source directory tree.

                 /Z :: copy files in restartable mode.
                 /B :: copy files in Backup mode.
                /ZB :: use restartable mode; if access denied use Backup mode.
            /EFSRAW :: copy all encrypted files in EFS RAW mode.

  /COPY:copyflag[s] :: what to COPY for files (default is /COPY:DAT).
                       (copyflags : D=Data, A=Attributes, T=Timestamps).
                       (S=Security=NTFS ACLs, O=Owner info, U=aUditing info).

           /DCOPY:T :: COPY Directory Timestamps.

               /SEC :: copy files with SECurity (equivalent to /COPY:DATS).
           /COPYALL :: COPY ALL file info (equivalent to /COPY:DATSOU).
            /NOCOPY :: COPY NO file info (useful with /PURGE).

            /SECFIX :: FIX file SECurity on all files, even skipped files.
            /TIMFIX :: FIX file TIMes on all files, even skipped files.

             /PURGE :: delete dest files/dirs that no longer exist in source.
               /MIR :: MIRror a directory tree (equivalent to /E plus /PURGE).

               /MOV :: MOVe files (delete from source after copying).
              /MOVE :: MOVE files AND dirs (delete from source after copying).

     /A+:[RASHCNET] :: add the given Attributes to copied files.
     /A-:[RASHCNET] :: remove the given Attributes from copied files.

            /CREATE :: CREATE directory tree and zero-length files only.
               /FAT :: create destination files using 8.3 FAT file names only.
               /256 :: turn off very long path (> 256 characters) support.

             /MON:n :: MONitor source; run again when more than n changes seen.
             /MOT:m :: MOnitor source; run again in m minutes Time, if changed.

      /RH:hhmm-hhmm :: Run Hours - times when new copies may be started.
                /PF :: check run hours on a Per File (not per pass) basis.

             /IPG:n :: Inter-Packet Gap (ms), to free bandwidth on slow lines.

                /SL :: copy symbolic links versus the target.

            /MT[:n] :: Do multi-threaded copies with n threads (default 8).
                       n must be at least 1 and not greater than 128.
                       This option is incompatible with the /IPG and /EFSRAW options.
                       Redirect output using /LOG option for better performance.

::
:: File Selection Options :
::
                 /A :: copy only files with the Archive attribute set.
                 /M :: copy only files with the Archive attribute and reset it.
    /IA:[RASHCNETO] :: Include only files with any of the given Attributes set.
    /XA:[RASHCNETO] :: eXclude files with any of the given Attributes set.

 /XF file [file]... :: eXclude Files matching given names/paths/wildcards.
 /XD dirs [dirs]... :: eXclude Directories matching given names/paths.

                /XC :: eXclude Changed files.
                /XN :: eXclude Newer files.
                /XO :: eXclude Older files.
                /XX :: eXclude eXtra files and directories.
                /XL :: eXclude Lonely files and directories.
                /IS :: Include Same files.
                /IT :: Include Tweaked files.

             /MAX:n :: MAXimum file size - exclude files bigger than n bytes.
             /MIN:n :: MINimum file size - exclude files smaller than n bytes.

          /MAXAGE:n :: MAXimum file AGE - exclude files older than n days/date.
          /MINAGE:n :: MINimum file AGE - exclude files newer than n days/date.
          /MAXLAD:n :: MAXimum Last Access Date - exclude files unused since n.
          /MINLAD:n :: MINimum Last Access Date - exclude files used since n.
                       (If n < 1900 then n = n days, else n = YYYYMMDD date).

                /XJ :: eXclude Junction points. (normally included by default).

               /FFT :: assume FAT File Times (2-second granularity).
               /DST :: compensate for one-hour DST time differences.

               /XJD :: eXclude Junction points for Directories.
               /XJF :: eXclude Junction points for Files.

::
:: Retry Options :
::
               /R:n :: number of Retries on failed copies: default 1 million.
               /W:n :: Wait time between retries: default is 30 seconds.

               /REG :: Save /R:n and /W:n in the Registry as default settings.

               /TBD :: wait for sharenames To Be Defined (retry error 67).

::
:: Logging Options :
::
                 /L :: List only - don't copy, timestamp or delete any files.
                 /X :: report all eXtra files, not just those selected.
                 /V :: produce Verbose output, showing skipped files.
                /TS :: include source file Time Stamps in the output.
                /FP :: include Full Pathname of files in the output.
             /BYTES :: Print sizes as bytes.

                /NS :: No Size - don't log file sizes.
                /NC :: No Class - don't log file classes.
               /NFL :: No File List - don't log file names.
               /NDL :: No Directory List - don't log directory names.

                /NP :: No Progress - don't display percentage copied.
               /ETA :: show Estimated Time of Arrival of copied files.

          /LOG:file :: output status to LOG file (overwrite existing log).
         /LOG+:file :: output status to LOG file (append to existing log).

       /UNILOG:file :: output status to LOG file as UNICODE (overwrite existing log).
      /UNILOG+:file :: output status to LOG file as UNICODE (append to existing log).

               /TEE :: output to console window, as well as the log file.

               /NJH :: No Job Header.
               /NJS :: No Job Summary.

           /UNICODE :: output status as UNICODE.

::
:: Job Options :
::
       /JOB:jobname :: take parameters from the named JOB file.
      /SAVE:jobname :: SAVE parameters to the named job file
              /QUIT :: QUIT after processing command line (to view parameters).
              /NOSD :: NO Source Directory is specified.
              /NODD :: NO Destination Directory is specified.
                /IF :: Include the following Files.

雖然有使用說明,但實際上的操作還是要摸索一下才知道怎麼組合適當的參數。我的需求是把 硬碟 F: 的全部資料 (含資料夾與檔案) 複製到硬碟 J:,保留檔案時間,也不刪除 F: 上的資料。組合出來的參數如下:

robocopy F:\ J:\ /e /dcopy:t /xo /xa:sh /xj /unicode /eta /xd "$RECYCLE.BIN" "System Volume Information" "RECYCLER"

Windows 系列的指令沒有分大小寫,所以全部打小寫也沒關係。這些參數所代表的意義是這樣的…

F:\ :: 檔案來源 硬碟 F:

J:\ :: 檔案目的地 硬碟 J:

/e :: 複製所有的子資料夾,包含空的資料夾。

/dcopy:t :: 保留所有檔案與資料夾的時間戳記。

/xo :: 如果已有相同的檔案,且時間相同或較舊就跳過。注意是 "叉歐",不是 "叉零"。

/xa:sh :: 跳過屬性為 s (系統) 與 h (隱藏) 的檔案。因為是複製整個硬碟,預設
會連 Windows 隱藏的系統檔都複製過去,所以要排除。

/xj :: 跳過 NTFS junction 檔案,關於 junction 請參考這篇文章。

/unicode :: 畫面上的進度資訊以 unicode 顯示,若是操作非中文及英文檔名,這
參數可以正確顯示名稱。有無開啟並不影響檔案複製、移動等操作,只是差在畫面顯示
正不正確而已。

/eta :: 顯示預計完成時間。

ps. 這個指令跟其他的 dos / windows 指令不一樣的地方是檔案名稱並不是接在資料夾後面的,請參見本文最前面列出的指令格式。舉例來說,要複製 F:\MyDocuments 底下的 .txt、.bmp、.jpg 到 J:\backup,那指令要組合成…

robocopy F:\MyDocuments\ J:\backup\ *.txt *.bmp *.jpg

反過來說,如果不想複製這些檔案,要加上參數 /xf

robocopy F:\MyDocuments\ J:\backup\ /xf *.txt *.bmp *.jpg

大致上就是醬,這支指令能組合的參數變化還有非常非常多,是很實用的工具。

References:

1 Comment on Windows Vista / 7 檔案複製、移動、同步指令:robocopy

  1. […] S2-U3 和 RoboCopy 已經搬移完數 TB 的資料了,方便性真是沒話說。 GA_googleAddAttr("AdOpt", "1"); […]

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